For each country:


National policy system and R&D capacities

The Bangladeshi national policy gives priority to the development of infrastructure facilities and capacity building in R&D institutions/universities to carry out research in the field of:

  1. Information and communication technology;
  2. Healthcare (diagnostics, cancer treatment and biosensors);
  3. Environmental protection (reduce carbon dioxide emission);
  4. Reduction of energy consumption;
  5. Efficient renewable energies;
  6. Purification, protection and production of drinking water (arsenic mitigation and nanofiltration);
  7. Agriculture and food security (using appropriate biotechnology and nanosensors).

The Ministry of Science and ICT of the Government of Bangladesh is giving emphasis on the innovation of new strategies and appropriate technologies for the poverty alleviation and socio-economic development of the country. For all these national plans to be implemented, promotion of nanotechnology is inevitable. Since nanotechnology is a comparatively novel and emerging technology and became important very recently, it would be incorporated in the national policy as a separate entity in due time for its potential growth and promotion of the socio-economic benefits.

R&D in nanotechnology in Bangladesh is very limited. The Materials Science Division of Atomic Energy Centre at Dhaka is carrying out some research work in the field of nanotechnology covering the following areas:

  1. Synthesis of nanoparticles by chemical methods, such as silver nanoparticles, iron oxide nanoparticles and various ceramic oxide nanoparticles, for studying magnetic and dielectric properties.
  2. Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticle has potential applications as a carrier of targeted drug delivery in cancer treatment by utilizing magnetic field created by iron oxide nanoparticle that facilitates tumours to be heated and destroyed without damaging adjacent healthy cells. Nanoscale iron oxide particles are extremely effective at binding and removing arsenic from ground water (which is a critical problem of some South Asian countries). Iron nanoparticles can be used for fabrication as a nanofilter that has potential applications in gas and water filtration.
  3. Silver nanoparticle has antibacterial properties and can be incorporated into textiles, coating and wound dressing for improving healthcare. The synthesized Nanoparticles are characterized by XRD and SEM, the only facilities available at the Materials Science Division. The particle sizes between 5 nm and 50 nm have been found and these depend on the thermal history during synthesis.
  4. Development of nanostructured/nanocomposite magnetic materials derived from the amorphous precursor in the form of ribbons with thickness of 20-25 ?m prepared by rapid solidification technique and subsequent thermal treatment. The nanograins developed during thermal treatment of the amorphous counterpart as a function of temperature/time has been found to be in the range of 5-20 nm. The best magnetic properties have been found for the sample with grain size of 10-15 nm.
  5. The nanostructured materials include iron-based ultra-soft nanocrystalline magnetic materials, fall under the trade name FINEMET and have potential applications as various kinds of inductor materials having ultra-high permeability and high relative quality factors. The research work on spring-exchange iron-based hard magnetic materials in the form of ribbons has also been carried out in the department for the optimization of the materials to have high-energy product permanent magnets.

These materials have many applications in electrical and electronic devices.


Against this promise of enormous benefits, a cautionary note should be sounded. In the ?through the looking glass world? of nanotechnology we are in uncharted territory. We need to examine safety, health and environmental issues with respect to the nanoparticle hazards and toxicity. However we should not become so paralysed by caution that we strangle these emerging sciences/technologies with red tape either. This exploration of inner space may yet prove to be our best bet in solving some of the most pressing and fundamental, life-threatening issues facing us all. Scope of research in nanotechnology in Bangladesh is limited because of the unavailability of appropriate tools and equipments, fewer numbers of resource persons as well as lack of proper training, less interaction and collaboration in this emerging technology. This is the most appropriate time to have close cooperation among the South-South countries to share the knowledge base and infrastructure for better understanding of the nanoscience and technology for future development of this region. For these purposes, expert-level interactions, discussions and formal meetings are necessary.
The following work is to be done by using nanotechnology:

  1. Information and communication technology healthcare (diagnostic, cancer treatment and biosensors);
  2. Environmental protection (reduce carbon dioxide emission);
  3. Reduction of energy consumption;
  4. Renewable energies;
  5. Purification, protection and production of drinking water (arsenic mitigation and nanofiltration);
  6. Agriculture and food security (using appropriate biotechnology and nanosensors).




Strategies and policies

A national commission on nanoscience and technology has been formed to help in the promotion of nanotech activities within the country. R&D in different areas of nanotechnology have been scheduled keeping in view national needs. Many universities are upgrading their curriculum.

Governmental organizations working in nanotechnology

Leading institutes working in this area are:

  • Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (PCSIR);
  • NINVAST, Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad;
  • Commission on Science and Technology for Sustainable Development in the South (COMSATS);
  • University of the Punjab-Solid State Physics Departure; and
  • Other universities are also coming forward.
(a) National Commission on Nanoscience and Technology (NCNST)
This age is a golden opportunity for Pakistan to reorient its resources and invest in nanotechnology.
(b) Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research

PCSIR was established in 1953 to promote the cause of science and technology in the country. It has a fully functional nanotechnology centre, mainly focusing on nanocoatings, nanomaterials and nanopowders. The activities of PCSIR encompass almost the entire industrial sector in the country, for the industrial units in operation have their groundwork in science and technology in which PCSIR is both prominent and all too visible an organization on the national plan. PCSIR, being the foremost industrial R&D organization, is the largest organized producer of technologies. Other activities include:

  • Optimum utilization of indigenous raw material resources for the development of industrial processes;
  • Development of technologies around local resources from bench to pilot plant stages and leasing them out for industrial exploitation, leading to import substitution and export enhancement;
  • To conduct R&D work on problems faced by the industrial sector and maintain linkages through seminars, workshops, publications and provision of assistance to academic institutions;
  • To undertake cooperative research with local and foreign R&D organizations and commerce-industrial outfits on projects of national interest.
  • Human resource development through organized training courses and diffusive on the job grooming of human resources for industry and research centres to broaden the science and technology base in the country.


In nanocomposite coatings, different materials (e.g. Ti, Al and Si) are deposited. For example, two different phases are merged in the plasma ? nanocrystalline TiAlN will be embedded into the amorphous Si3N4-matrix. This structure enables extremely high hardness (40-50 GPa) maintained to high temperatures (up to ~1,100?C) even at a lower Al content (e.g. 50 per cent).
NaCo is one type of nanocomposite coating; NaCo = (nc-AlTiN)/(a-Si3N4) It has extremely high nano-hardness and high heat resistance. It is available with decorative blue top layer.

Facilities for characterization of coatings

The scope of work of Nano Technology Lab can be classified into two major categories:
industrial use and R&D work.

(a) Industrial use

The facilities of nanotechnology lab can be utilized for the development, synthesis and characterization of 12 different nanocoatings used in the following industries:

  • Orthopaedic implants and surgical industry ? TiN being a biocompatible coating is used in orthopaedic implants and surgical industry where sharpness and edge retention are important. Because of its attractive metallic colour it is also used for decorative purposes.
  • Cutting tool industry ? TiAlN is being used as a protective hard coating for cutting tools. High-temperature cutting operations with minimum lubrication are possible by the use of TiAlN coating. TiAlN is also used for protecting dies and moulds in medium and hot forging and extrusion industry.
  • Tool and die industry ? Diamond-like carbons (DLCs) are extremely hardened nanocomposite coating. These coatings are extremely useful in the tool and die industry by enhancing the tribological properties of the tools and hence increase their life manifolds. End mills, drill mills, dies and moulds often use DLC coating in this way.
  • Textile industry ? In most of the textile industry, CrN coatings are used. These are standard coatings for non-cutting applications such as for moulds and dies and for machining parts, and low deposition temperature is possible (above 220?C).

(b) R&D work

It is involved the SPM characterization in the following fields: Solar panels; Ferromagnets;

Semiconductors; CNTs embedded in neat epoxy; Stress-induced martensite formation in super-alloys; and Silicon wafers.


National policies and institutional infrastructure

The national research agenda in Indonesia covers the following areas:

  1. Food security;
  2. Health and medicine;
  3. New and renewable energy;
  4. Defence and security;
  5. Transportation;
  6. Information technology and communication;
  7. Natural resources and environment;
  8. Social dynamics;
  9. Science measurement; and
  10. Advanced materials (nanomaterial, functional material, inelegancy material, etc.)

here are two main actors in the nanotechnology field in Indonesia. The first is the Ministry for Science and Technology (MOST), which oversees national research institute and universities. MOST manages the Incentive Research Grant Programme and the National Research Priority Programme. The other main actor is the Department of Education for Universities, which manages the Competitive Research Grant. There are many research institutes under MOST:

  • Agency for Assessment and Application of Technology (BPPT);
  • Agency for Atomic and Nuclear Power (BATAN); and
  • Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI):
    • Research Centre for Physics (ceramics, equipment, etc.);
    • Research Centre for Metallurgy (alloy material);
    • Research Centre for Biotechnology (health, food);
    • Research Centre for Chemistry (catalyst); and
    • R&D Unit for Biomaterial (automotive).

Institutional and competency development at LIPI

In 1967, the Indonesian government established the Indonesian Institute of Science (LIPI) that implements the following tasks:

  • Guiding the development of science and technology, to be rooted in Indonesia and to be utilized for the welfare of the people of Indonesia in particular and mankind in general;
  • Search for scientific truth, ensuring that the scientific freedom, freedom of research and freedom of expression are recognized and guaranteed; and Preparing the formation of Indonesian Academy of Science.

LIPI also has the task of carrying out government duties in the field of scientific research in accordance with the provisions and legislation in force.

Example of research outputs

Cellulose nanofibre (bio-nanofibre) in wood cell wall (Awano, Kyoto University)

Cellulose nanofibre is strong as steel, as thermally stable as glass and as bendable as plastics. The mechanical reinforcement of optically functional materials is of significant interest to various industries due to the rapid expansion of related devices (e.g. displays). They have developed a transparent polymeric nanocomposite using a web-like bacterial cellulose nanofibre network as the mechanical reinforcing agent. Sustainable carbon was used to produce high-strength and high-durability materials for electricity goods, building materials, automotives and other goods. Fibre that is made of biomass has strength the same as steel. It is easy for this nanocomposite to reform with high strength and these products have high functional materials properties ? flexible, transparent and high stabilization dimension.

Pulp can be disintegrated into nanofibres having a web-like network (MFC). The strength of the composites reinforced with these nanofibres is equivalent to that of mild steel or magnesium alloy. A 300 kg reduction of automobile body weight improves fuel consumption by 20 per cent ? reinforced body (bioplastic), reinforced tyre (natural rubber) and reinforced window.